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False Imprisonment

False Imprisonment / Kidnapping

If you've been arrested for False Imprisonment or arrested for Kidnapping, you face serious criminal felony charges. False imprisonment refers to complete restriction of one's liberty of movement without legal justification. Kidnapping is the taking and movement of a person against that person's will without legal authority. An individual convicted of kidnapping can be sentenced to life in prison. Most false imprisonment arrests come from domestic setting, and our usually coupled with a domestic battery or other battery or assault charge.

Kidnapping are usually associated with a theft or robbery charges, although most think of kidnapping for ransom. Ransom cases are very rare. Kidnappings often come from the movement of victims during a home invasion or business (i.e. bank) robbery or being restrained during the robbery to avoid detection or alerting the police. This case law is complicated and kidnapping may be merged into the theft if the detention of movement of the victims was slight.

It is also a crime to interfere with parental custody. If an individual without lawful authority takes any child 17 years of age or less from the child's proper guardian and removes the child from the state without legal authority, the individual can be charged with a third degree felony. Police should be hesitant to get involved I these matters because custody disputes can make it hard prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the parent was criminal in moving or keeping the child from the other parent.

At Arnold Law Firm, we practice not just the science of lawyering but the art of being a lawyer. We don't just tell, but make the prosecutor, judge or jury feel and experience the client's story as part of our representation. Contact our experienced criminal defense attorneys for a 30 minute free consultation today at .

787.01 Kidnapping; kidnapping of child under age 13, aggravating circumstances.

(1)(a) The term "kidnapping" means forcibly, secretly, or by threat confining, abducting, or imprisoning another person against her or his will and without lawful authority, with intent to:

1. Hold for ransom or reward or as a shield or hostage.

2. Commit or facilitate commission of any felony.

3. Inflict bodily harm upon or to terrorize the victim or another person.

4. Interfere with the performance of any governmental or political function.

(b) Confinement of a child under the age of 13 is against her or his will within the meaning of this subsection if such confinement is without the consent of her or his parent or legal guardian.

(2) A person who kidnaps a person is guilty of a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life or as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3)(a) A person who commits the offense of kidnapping upon a child under the age of 13 and who, in the course of committing the offense, commits one or more of the following:

1. Aggravated child abuse, as defined in s. 827.03;

2. Sexual battery, as defined in chapter 794, against the child;

3. Lewd or lascivious battery, lewd or lascivious molestation, lewd or lascivious conduct, or lewd or lascivious exhibition, in violation of s. 800.04 or s. 847.0135(5);

4. A violation of s. 796.03 or s. 796.04, relating to prostitution, upon the child; or

5. Exploitation of the child or allowing the child to be exploited, in violation of s. 450.151, commits a life felony, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) Pursuant to s. 775.021(4), nothing contained herein shall be construed to prohibit the imposition of separate judgments and sentences for the life felony described in paragraph (a) and for each separate offense enumerated in subparagraphs (a)1.-5.

History.--s. 1, ch. 5907, 1909; RGS 5058; CGL 7160; s. 1, ch 16063, 1933; s. 784, ch. 71-136; s. 8, ch. 72-724; s. 22, ch 74-383; s. 12, ch. 75-298; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 1, ch. 84-238; s. 2, ch. 90-120; s. 2, ch. 93-227; s. 9, ch. 96-322; s. 1813, ch. 97-102; s. 4, ch. 99-201; s. 3, ch. 2000-246; s. 18, ch. 2008-172.

Note.--Former s. 805.02.

787.02 False imprisonment; false imprisonment of child under age 13, aggravating circumstances.

(1)(a) The term "false imprisonment" means forcibly, by threat, or secretly confining, abducting, imprisoning, or restraining another person without lawful authority and against her or his will.

(b) Confinement of a child under the age of 13 is against her or his will within the meaning of this section if such confinement is without the consent of her or his parent or legal guardian.

(2) A person who commits the offense of false imprisonment is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3)(a) A person who commits the offense of false imprisonment upon a child under the age of 13 and who, in the course of committing the offense, commits any offense enumerated in subparagraphs 1.-5., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life or as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

1. Aggravated child abuse, as defined in s. 827.03;

2. Sexual battery, as defined in chapter 794, against the child;

3. Lewd or lascivious battery, lewd or lascivious molestation, lewd or lascivious conduct, or lewd or lascivious exhibition, in violation of s. 800.04 or s. 847.0135(5);

4. A violation of s. 796.03 or s. 796.04, relating to prostitution, upon the child; or

5. Exploitation of the child or allowing the child to be exploited, in violation of s. 450.151.

(b) Pursuant to s. 775.021(4), nothing contained herein shall be construed to prohibit the imposition of separate judgments and sentences for the first degree offense described in paragraph (a) and for each separate offense enumerated in subparagraphs (a)1.-5.

History.--s. 43, sub-ch. 3, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2399; GS 3225; RGS 5057; CGL 7159; s. 783, ch. 71-136; s. 23, ch. 74-383; s. 13, ch. 75-298; s. 1, ch. 84-238; s. 2, ch. 90-120; s. 1, ch. 93-156; ss. 2, 18, ch. 93-227; s. 9, ch. 96-322; s. 1814, ch. 97-102; s. 5, ch. 99-201; s. 3, ch. 2000-246; s. 19, ch. 2008-172.

Note.--Former s. 805.01.

787.025 Luring or enticing a child.

787.025 Luring or enticing a child.--

(1) As used in this section, the term:

(a) "Structure" means a building of any kind, either temporary or permanent, which has a roof over it, together with the curtilage thereof.

(b) "Dwelling" means a building or conveyance of any kind, either temporary or permanent, mobile or immobile, which has a roof over it and is designed to be occupied by people lodging together therein at night, together with the curtilage thereof.

(c) "Conveyance" means any motor vehicle, ship, vessel, railroad car, trailer, aircraft, or sleeping car.

(d) "Convicted" means a determination of guilt which is the result of a trial or the entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, regardless of whether adjudication is withheld.

(2)(a) A person 18 years of age or older who intentionally lures or entices, or attempts to lure or entice, a child under the age of 12 into a structure, dwelling, or conveyance for other than a lawful purpose commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) A person 18 years of age or older who, having been previously convicted of a violation of paragraph (a), intentionally lures or entices, or attempts to lure or entice, a child under the age of 12 into a structure, dwelling, or conveyance for other than a lawful purpose commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) A person 18 years of age or older who, having been previously convicted of a violation of chapter 794, s. 800.04, or s. 847.0135(5), or a violation of a similar law of another jurisdiction, intentionally lures or entices, or attempts to lure or entice, a child under the age of 12 into a structure, dwelling, or conveyance for other than a lawful purpose commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) It is an affirmative defense to a prosecution under this section that:

(a) The person reasonably believed that his or her action was necessary to prevent the child from being seriously injured.

(b) The person lured or enticed, or attempted to lure or entice, the child under the age of 12 into a structure, dwelling, or conveyance for a lawful purpose.

(c) The person's actions were reasonable under the circumstances and the defendant did not have any intent to harm the health, safety, or welfare of the child.

History.--s. 1, ch. 95-228; s. 8, ch. 99-201; s. 3, ch. 2000-246; s. 1, ch. 2006-299; s. 20, ch. 2008-172.

787.03 Interference with custody.

(1) Whoever, without lawful authority, knowingly or recklessly takes or entices, or aids, abets, hires, or otherwise procures another to take or entice, any minor or any incompetent person from the custody of the minor's or incompetent person's parent, his or her guardian, a public agency having the lawful charge of the minor or incompetent person, or any other lawful custodian commits the offense of interference with custody and commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) In the absence of a court order determining rights to custody or visitation with any minor or with any incompetent person, any parent of the minor or incompetent person, whether natural or adoptive, stepparent, legal guardian, or relative of the minor or incompetent person who has custody thereof and who takes, detains, conceals, or entices away that minor or incompetent person within or without the state with malicious intent to deprive another person of his or her right to custody of the minor or incompetent person commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) A subsequently obtained court order for custody or visitation does not affect application of this section.

(4) It is a defense that:

(a) The defendant had reasonable cause to believe that his or her action was necessary to preserve the minor or the incompetent person from danger to his or her welfare.

(b) The defendant was the victim of an act of domestic violence or had reasonable cause to believe that he or she was about to become the victim of an act of domestic violence as defined in s. 741.28, and the defendant had reasonable cause to believe that the action was necessary in order for the defendant to escape from, or protect himself or herself from, the domestic violence or to preserve the minor or incompetent person from exposure to the domestic violence.

(c) The minor or incompetent person was taken away at his or her own instigation without enticement and without purpose to commit a criminal offense with or against the minor or incompetent person, and the defendant establishes that it was reasonable to rely on the instigating acts of the minor or incompetent person.

(5) Proof that a person has not attained the age of 18 years creates the presumption that the defendant knew the minor's age or acted in reckless disregard thereof.

(6)(a) The offenses prescribed in subsections (1) and (2) do not apply in cases in which a person having a legal right to custody of a minor or incompetent person is the victim of any act of domestic violence, has reasonable cause to believe he or she is about to become the victim of any act of domestic violence, as defined in s. 741.28, or believes that his or her action was necessary to preserve the minor or the incompetent person from danger to his or her welfare and seeks shelter from such acts or possible acts and takes with him or her the minor or incompetent person.

(b) In order to gain the exception conferred by paragraph (a), a person who takes a minor or incompetent person under this subsection must:

1. Within 10 days after taking the minor or incompetent person, make a report to the sheriff's office or state attorney's office for the county in which the minor or incompetent person resided at the time he or she was taken, which report must include the name of the person taking the minor or incompetent person, the current address and telephone number of the person and minor or incompetent person, and the reasons the minor or incompetent person was taken.

2. Within a reasonable time after taking a minor, commence a custody proceeding that is consistent with the federal Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act, 28 U.S.C. s. 1738A, or the Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act, ss. 61.501-61.542.

3. Inform the sheriff's office or state attorney's office for the county in which the minor or incompetent person resided at the time he or she was taken of any change of address or telephone number of the person and the minor or incompetent person.

(c)1. The current address and telephone number of the person and the minor or incompetent person which are contained in the report made to a sheriff or state attorney under paragraph (b) are confidential and exempt from s. 119.07(1) and s. 24(a), Art. I of the State Constitution.

2. A sheriff or state attorney may allow an agency, as defined in s. 119.011, to inspect and copy records made confidential and exempt under this paragraph in the furtherance of that agency's duties and responsibilities.

3. This paragraph is subject to the Open Government Sunset Review Act in accordance with s. 119.15 and is repealed on October 2, 2011, unless reviewed and saved from repeal through reenactment by the Legislature.

History.--s. 24, ch. 74-383; s. 14, ch. 75-298; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 1, ch. 88-244; s. 25, ch. 94-134; s. 25, ch. 94-135; s. 1201, ch. 97-102; s. 1, ch. 2000-231; s. 1, ch. 2000-357; s. 157, ch. 2004-5; s. 1, ch. 2005-89; s. 1, ch. 2006-114; s. 1, ch. 2006-115.

787.04 Removing minors from state or concealing minors contrary to state agency order or court order.

(1) It is unlawful for any person, in violation of a court order, to lead, take, entice, or remove a minor beyond the limits of this state, or to conceal the location of a minor, with personal knowledge of the order.

(2) It is unlawful for any person, with criminal intent, to lead, take, entice, or remove a minor beyond the limits of this state, or to conceal the location of a minor, during the pendency of any action or proceeding affecting custody of the minor, after having received notice as required by law of the pendency of the action or proceeding, without the permission of the court in which the action or proceeding is pending.

(3) It is unlawful for any person to knowingly and willfully lead, take, entice, or remove a minor beyond the limits of this state, or to knowingly and willfully conceal the location of a minor, during the pendency of a dependency proceeding affecting such minor or during the pendency of any investigation, action, or proceeding concerning the alleged abuse or neglect of such minor, after having received actual or constructive notice of the pendency of such investigation, action, or proceeding and without the permission of the state agency or court in which the investigation, action, or proceeding is pending.

(4) It is unlawful for any person, who has carried beyond the limits of this state any minor whose custody is involved in any action or proceeding pending in this state pursuant to the order of the court in which the action or proceeding is pending or pursuant to the permission of the court, thereafter, to fail to produce the minor in the court or deliver the minor to the person designated by the court.

(5) It is a defense under this section that a person who leads, takes, entices, or removes a minor beyond the limits of the state reasonably believes that his or her action was necessary to protect the minor from child abuse as defined in s. 827.03.

(6) Any person who violates this section is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.--s. 1, ch. 29654, 1955; s. 1, ch. 57-337; s. 47, ch. 67-254; s. 785, ch. 71-136; s. 25, ch. 74-383; s. 15, ch. 75-298; s. 1, ch. 80-102; s. 3, ch. 88-151; s. 3, ch. 96-215; s. 23, ch. 96-322; s. 1815, ch. 97-102; s. 21, ch. 2008-245.

Note.--Former ss. 65.141, 805.03.

787.05 Unlawfully obtaining labor or services.

(1) Causing or threatening to cause bodily injury to that person or another person;

(2) Restraining or threatening to restrain that person or another person without lawful authority and against her or his will; or

(3) Withholding that person's governmental records, identifying information, or other personal property, commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.--s. 1, ch. 2004-391.

787.06 Human trafficking.

(1)(a) The Legislature finds that human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery. Victims of human trafficking are young children, teenagers, and adults. Thousands of victims are trafficked annually across international borders worldwide. Many of these victims are trafficked into this state. The Legislature finds that victims of human trafficking are subjected to force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of sexual exploitation or forced labor.

(b) The Legislature finds that while many victims of human trafficking are forced to work in prostitution or the sexual entertainment industry, trafficking also occurs in forms of labor exploitation, such as domestic servitude, restaurant work, janitorial work, sweatshop factory work, and migrant agricultural work.

(c) The Legislature finds that traffickers use various techniques to instill fear in victims and to keep them enslaved. Some traffickers keep their victims under lock and key. However, the most frequently used practices are less obvious techniques that include isolating victims from the public and family members; confiscating passports, visas, or other identification documents; using or threatening to use violence toward victims or their families; telling victims that they will be imprisoned or deported for immigration violations if they contact authorities; and controlling the victims' funds by holding the money ostensibly for safekeeping.

(d) It is the intent of the Legislature that the perpetrators of human trafficking be penalized for their illegal conduct and that the victims of trafficking be protected and assisted by this state and its agencies. In furtherance of this policy, it is the intent of the Legislature that the state Supreme Court, The Florida Bar, and relevant state agencies prepare and implement training programs in order that judges, attorneys, law enforcement personnel, investigators, and others are able to identify traffickers and victims of human trafficking and direct victims to appropriate agencies for assistance. It is the intent of the Legislature that the Department of Children and Family Services and other state agencies cooperate with other state and federal agencies to ensure that victims of human trafficking can access social services and benefits to alleviate their plight.

(2) As used in this section, the term:

(a) "Financial harm" includes extortionate extension of credit, loan sharking as defined in s. 687.071, or employment contracts that violate the statute of frauds as provided in s. 725.01.

(b) "Forced labor or services" means labor or services obtained from a person by:

1. Using or threatening to use physical force against that person or another person;

2. Restraining, isolating, or confining or threatening to restrain, isolate, or confine that person or another person without lawful authority and against her or his will;

3. Using lending or other credit methods to establish a debt by that person or another person when labor or services are pledged as a security for the debt, if the value of the labor or services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt, the length and nature of the labor or services are not respectively limited and defined;

4. Destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating, withholding, or possessing any actual or purported passport, visa, or other immigration document, or any other actual or purported government identification document, of that person or another person;

5. Causing or threatening to cause financial harm to any person; or

6. Fraud or coercion.

(c) "Human trafficking" means transporting, soliciting, recruiting, harboring, providing, or obtaining another person for transport.

(d) "Maintain," when used in relation to labor services, means to secure continued performance thereof, regardless of any initial agreement on the part of the victim to perform such type service.

(3) Any person who knowingly:

(a) Engages, or attempts to engage, in human trafficking with the intent or knowledge that the trafficked person will be subjected to forced labor or services; or

(b) Benefits financially by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture that has subjected a person to forced labor or services; commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(4) The Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission shall establish standards for basic and advanced training programs for law enforcement officers in the subjects of investigating and preventing human trafficking crimes. After January 1, 2007, every basic skills course required for law enforcement officers to obtain initial certification must include training on human trafficking crime prevention and investigation.

(5) Each state attorney shall develop standards of instruction for prosecutors to receive training on the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking crimes and shall provide for periodic and timely instruction.

History.--s. 2, ch. 2004-391; s. 1, ch. 2006-168.

787.07 Human smuggling.

(1) A person who transports into this state an individual who the person knows, or should know, is illegally entering the United States from another country commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) A person commits a separate offense for each individual he or she transports into this state in violation of this section.

History.--s. 1, ch. 2009-160.

Updated as of September 1, 2009 from http://www.flsenate.gov/.

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